Horizon Security

Maritime Cyber Risk Management

Ships are increasingly using onboard IT and OT systems more and more frequently integrated and connected to the internet, implying cyber risks related to unauthorised access or malicious attacks to ships' systems and networks.

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International maritime transport covers over 80% of world trade and is the most efficient and cheapest method of transportation for most goods.

IMO (International Maritime Organization) the specialized agency of the United Nations in charge to promote maritime cooperation between member countries and to guarantee the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment) adopted in 2017 resolution MSC.428(98).

Resolution MSC.428(98) establishes that on-board Safety Management Systems must be integrated in order to take into account the aspects of cyber risk management related to on-board IT and OT system.

Cyber risk management should consider both cyber security and cyber safety because of their potential effect on personnel, the ship, environment, company and cargo.

Cyber security is concerned with the protection of IT, OT, information and data from unauthorised access, manipulation and disruption.

Cyber safety covers the risks from the loss of availability or integrity of safety critical data and OT.

Common on-board Ships' Systems

  • Cargo Management Systems
  • Bridge Systems
  • Propulsion and Machinery Management and Power Control Systems
  • Access Control Systems
  • Passenger Servicing and Management Systems
  • Passenger Facing Public Networks
  • Administrative and Crew Welfare Systems
  • Communication Systems

Guidelines on Cyber Security on-board

Guidelines on Cyber Security on-board ships issued by produced and supported by BIMCO, CLIA, ICS, INTERCARGO, INTERTANKO, OCIMF and IUMI present an approach for the implementation of Cyber Risk Management as a circular process that underline steps to be followed.
Identify threats (external and internal) that may compromise the ship's cyber security and have negative impact on physical security and on environment.

Evaluate the vulnerabilities that could lead to the realization of the identified threats.
Most common vulnerabilities are:
  • obsolete and unsupported operating systems
  • outdated or missing antivirus software and protection from malware
  • inadequate security configurations shipboard computer networks, which lack boundary protection measures and segmentation of networks
  • safety critical equipment or systems always connected with the shore side
  • inadequate access controls for third parties including contractors and service providers

Determine cyber risks in terms of impacts as result of loss:
  • of confidentiality, due to unauthorised access of information or data about the ship, crew, cargo and passengers
  • of integrity, due to modification of information and data on-board systems
  • of availability due to the destruction of information and data and/or the disruption to services/ operation of ship systems.

In relation to OT systems should be take in consideration also impacts on
  • on the safety of on-board personnel, the ship and cargo
  • on environment

Implement adequate technical and procedural measures for the protection and he availability of IT and OT on-board systems

Define the operational programs that foresee the actions to be implemented, on-board the ship, in the event of an cyber security incident

Define responsibilities and appropriate actions to be taken to respond and restore normal operations on-board the ship, following the occurrence of cyber security incidents.

Horizon Security Maritime Cyber Risk Services

Horizon Security developed services and tools to address:

Integration of Cyber Risk Management

The integration of Cyber Risk Management aspects into the on-board Safety Management System.

Evaluate compliance status of IMO requirements

The execution of gap analysis activities to evaluate compliance status of IMO requirements and to identify related remediation plan.

Identifies and mitigate Cyber Risks

The implementation of Cyber Risk Analysis activities in order to be able to identifies risks related to the specific context and to mitigate appropriately them.